1. Tachycardia
2. Sweating
3. Confusion
4. Altered mentation
5. Dizziness
6. Unresponsiveness

Common Causes:

i. Alcohol consumption
ii. Liver failure
iii. Excessive intake of medications like paracetamol or aspirin
iv. Use of sulfonylureas (e.g., glyburide, glibenclamide)


Immediate Testing:
. Random Blood Glucose Level: A quick bedside glucose test to confirm hypoglycaemia.
Further Diagnostic Steps:
. Serum Insulin and C-peptide Levels: To differentiate between endogenous and exogenous insulin sources if necessary.
. Serum Electrolytes: To identify any associated electrolyte imbalances.

Whipple’s Triad:
. Low plasma glucose level (usually <4 mmol/L).
. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia (e.g., sweating, confusion, tachycardia).
. Resolution of symptoms upon correction of blood glucose levels.


Management of Hypoglycaemia


Conscious and able to swallowGive 200 ml of fruit juice
Conscious but unable to swallow200 ml of 10% glucose IV


1 mg glucagon IM or SC

Unconscious75 ml of 20% glucose IV


50 ml of 10% glucose IV


1 mg glucagon IM or SC

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