Key Points


1. Postmenopausal Vaginal Bleeding: Always suspect endometrial carcinoma and evaluate thoroughly.
2. Initial Test: Transvaginal ultrasound to measure endometrial thickness.
3. Follow-up Test: Hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy if endometrial thickness > 4 mm.
4. Risk Factors for Endometrial Carcinoma: Include obesity, nulliparity, unopposed oestrogen therapy, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), use of tamoxifen, early menarche, late menopause, and diabetes mellitus.

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