Paediatrics Q16

Bronchiolitis in Infants

Overview

Bronchiolitis is an acute infection affecting the lower respiratory tract, primarily seen in very young children, most commonly those under 2 years of age. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the causative pathogen in approximately 75-80% of cases.

Features

Symptoms

i. Breathing Difficulties: Rapid or shallow breathing, chest retractions

ii. Cough: Persistent and often worsening cough

iii. Coryzal Symptoms: Including a mild fever, runny nose, and congestion.

iv. Decreased Feeding: Poor appetite or difficulty in feeding due to breathing issues.

v. Apneas: Short pauses in breathing, more commonly seen in very young infants

vi. Auditory Signs: Wheeze or fine inspiratory crackles upon auscultation

vii. Tachypnoea or Chest Recession: Rapid breathing or visible chest retractions

Management

1. Supportive Care: The mainstay of treatment is supportive care.

2. Humidified Oxygen: This helps in alleviating breathing difficulties.

 

Further Reading: Bronchiolitis

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