Mechanisms of Action of Important Drugs
Below is a detailed breakdown of the mechanisms of action of various medications including anticoagulants and an antidote for paracetamol toxicity.
1. LMWH (Low Molecular Weight Heparin)
. Mechanism: Activates antithrombin III, which inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, playing a crucial role in preventing clot formation.
2. UFH (Unfractionated Heparin)
. Mechanism: Like LMWH, it activates antithrombin III but goes a step further by not only inhibiting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin but also blocking the action of thrombin itself. This dual action is central to its anticoagulant properties.
. Mechanism: It works through the inhibition of vitamin K dependent factors necessary for clotting. This action helps in preventing the synthesis of clotting factors, thereby exerting an anticoagulant effect.
Antidote for Paracetamol Toxicity
. Mechanism: In the case of paracetamol toxicity, N-acetylcysteine comes into play by acting as a precursor for glutathione synthesis. It increases glutathione production, helping in the inactivation of NAPQI, a harmful metabolite produced during paracetamol overdose. Furthermore, it offers protection from free radicals, reducing the extent of liver damage that can occur due to toxicity.