Comparison of Placental Abruption, Placenta Previa, and Uterine Rupture


FeaturePlacental AbruptionPlacenta PreviaUterine Rupture
Signs and Symptoms


– OnsetSuddenOften gradualSudden
– BleedingVaginal bleeding (usually dark)Painless bright red vaginal bleedingVaginal bleeding
– PainSevere abdominal painUsually, painlessSevere abdominal pain
– Uterine ActivityUterine tenderness, contractions/increased uterine toneUterus soft and relaxedLoss of uterine tone
– Foetal DistressFoetal distress is commonFoetal distress is less commonFoetal distress is common


– Initial InvestigationCardiotocography (CTG)Ultrasound (preferably transvaginal)Cardiotocography (CTG)
– Follow-up InvestigationVaginal ultrasound (if CTG normal)None, ultrasound is definitiveUltrasound or MRI for diagnosis


– Immediate ActionsPerform CTG, if foetal distress urgent C-sectionAvoid digital or speculum exam until placenta previa is ruled outPerform CTG, immediate surgical intervention if confirmed
– Definitive TreatmentUrgent C-section if foetal distress; stabilize motherPlanned C-section if diagnosed; emergency C-section if bleedingEmergency surgical repair or C-section
– MonitoringContinuous foetal monitoringContinuous foetal monitoringContinuous foetal monitoring
– Blood Loss ManagementManage blood loss and stabilize maternal hemodynamicBlood transfusion if necessaryManage blood loss and stabilize maternal hemodynamic

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