FeatureUrge IncontinenceStress Incontinence
DefinitionInvoluntary leakage of urine accompanied by or immediately preceded by urgency.Involuntary leakage of urine during physical activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure, such as coughing, sneezing, or laughing.
CauseOveractive bladder muscle (detrusor muscle hyperactivity).Weakness of the pelvic floor muscles or urethral sphincter deficiency.
SymptomsSudden and intense urge to urinate, followed by involuntary leakage.Leakage occurs with exertion, such as during exercise or when lifting heavy objects.
Risk FactorsNeurological disorders, aging, bladder irritants (caffeine, alcohol).Multiple vaginal deliveries, pelvic surgery, menopause, obesity.
Initial TreatmentBladder retraining (gradually increasing time between voiding).Pelvic floor muscle exercises (Kegel exercises) for at least three months.
MedicationsAntimuscarinic drugs (e.g., oxybutynin).Duloxetine (if surgery is not an option).
Surgical OptionsBotulinum toxin injections or sacral nerve stimulation (if severe and not responsive to other treatments).Mid-urethral sling surgery (tension-free vaginal tape).

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